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Preparation of vein graphite anode materials by eco-friendly mild oxidation, for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

Authors:

T.H.N.G. Amaraweera ,

Uva Wellassa University, LK
About T.H.N.G.
Faculty of Science and Technology
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S. Pynthamil,

Uva Wellassa University, LK
About S.
Faculty of Science and Technology
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H.W.M.A.C Wijayasinghe,

National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy, LK
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N.W.B. Balasooriya

University of Peradeniya, LK
About N.W.B.
Department of Geology
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Abstract

Vein graphite with high purity and crystallinity has been identified as a cost-effective source to produce anode material. High anisotropy of graphite surface and impurities in trace levels cause profound alteration of electrochemical activities in Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries (LIBs). Surface modification with strong chemical oxidant such as (NH4)2S2O8, HNO3 and HF, which are highly toxic and hazardous is identified as a successful method to modify the graphite as an anode material. Therefore, an eco-friendly approach to modify the vein graphite surface was investigated in this study. Purified needle platy graphite was treated with H2O2 solution at 60°C for 24 hours. FT-IR spectra and Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns oxidized graphite indicate the formation of acidic groups or an oxidized layer without affecting the crystallographic structure of graphite due to mild oxidation with H2O2. In addition, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) images provided results suggesting that the oxidation eliminates some reactive structural defects in vein graphite. The electrochemical properties of the graphite electrodes were studied with the assembled CR 2032 coin cells. The charge, discharge study of the assembled cells, carried out at C/5 rate with a cutoff voltage of 0.002 - 1.5 V at room temperature indicate a considerable improvement in the overall electrochemical performance of the graphite electrode material prepared by mild oxidation using H2O2 as the oxidant. This enhancement of electrochemical performance may results due to the improved graphite surface structure formed by the H2O2 mild oxidation process used in this study. Mild oxidation of vein graphite with H2O2 is eco-friendly and cost-effective method since water is the by-product of the oxidation process carried out at low temperature.
How to Cite: Amaraweera, T.H.N.G., Pynthamil, S., Wijayasinghe, H.W.M.A.C. and Balasooriya, N.W.B., 2019. Preparation of vein graphite anode materials by eco-friendly mild oxidation, for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Journal of the Geological Society of Sri Lanka, 20(2), pp.37–43. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/jgssl.v20i2.31
Published on 01 Dec 2019.
Peer Reviewed

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